10 Lessons For Armed Citizens

Written by Greg Ellifritz

Topics: Articles

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The aftermath of the Bataclan Theater shooting in Paris.  It's up to you to make sure you don't appear in a future photo like this.

The aftermath of the Bataclan Theater shooting in Paris. It’s up to you to make sure you don’t appear in a future photo like this.


With the crazy increasing frequency of active killer events worldwide, I thought I’d re-share this piece I originally posted almost three years ago.  The excellent article you see below was written by Ed Monk, a tactical instructor, police officer and retired Army Colonel.  I met Ed several years ago at TDI and have always found him to be a thoughtful and well-informed instructor. If you are located in central Arkansas, check out Last Resort Firearms Training and take some classes.  I know you will be satisfied with the instruction you receive.  Ed’s contact information and bio appear at the end of the article.

The topic of Ed’s article is about how armed citizens should respond in an active shooter event.  The active shooter event that occurred at the Colorado movie theater has been virtually forgotten by many.  Future killers will depend on this type of complacency in order to create an even greater body count in the future.  Ed’s article is a reminder for all of us to remember the painful lessons learned.

– Greg



10 Lessons for Armed Citizens from the Aurora Theater Mass Murder

Ed Monk, Co-Owner & Instructor, Last Resort Firearms Training

We encourage our defensive handgun students to study media stories about violent attacks to find lessons, consider options, and conduct mental rehearsals.  There are still many facts and details the public does not know about the “active shooter” attack in a movie theater in Aurora, CO, on July 20th.  But in its immediate aftermath, there does seem to be enough information to reap valuable lessons for legally armed citizens to learn or re-learn about preparing for, identifying, and reacting to an “active shooter” (AS) event.  These include lessons about mindset, gear, and tactics.  To limit the size of this article, I offer these ten.  For simplicity, I will refer to the Active Shooter and the armed citizen as “he” or “him.”



1.  When an AS begins his attack, it may not be immediately obvious to you and others what exactly is happening.  After many AS attacks, witnesses have stated that they initially believed the gunshots they first heard were fireworks, construction, or some kind of prank.  Even for those of us who shoot often and are very familiar with the sounds of gun shots (although usually altered through hearing protection), that sound in a crowded public place would be extremely uncommon or a new experience for most people.  In the Aurora AS attack, this confusion was amplified by the darkness of the theater and (at least somewhat) reasonable assumptions by many witnesses who initially believed the smoke and shots were special effects or some surprise special promotion by the theater for this special midnight premiere of a hyped-up, action movie.  Although rare and bizarre, we must keep the AS attack mentally filed as the possible cause for sights and sounds we experience in public.  The more quickly we realize and identify an AS after he begins shooting, the more quickly we can react to protect ourselves and other innocent people.



2. An AS attack can happen in low-light and darkness.  The vast majority of AS attacks I’ve researched have occurred in daylight or in well-lit indoor locations.  Two exceptions (until now) that immediately come to mind are portions of the Mumbai (India) attack by teams of multiple shooters and the AS who turned off the lights in the aerobics workout room in a Pennsylvania fitness center before shooting at women inside.  The Aurora AS attack occurred inside a dark theater at night.  Had an armed citizen been in that theater, a tactical light would have been very useful (maybe a requirement?) to properly identify and engage the AS, if the decision was made to do so.  Because many companies are making tactical lights that are small, lightweight, bright, and reasonably priced, keeping one with you is now easy to do.  Gear will do nothing by itself, so knowing how to fight with your handgun while holding and using a tactical light would be a critical skill in such a low-light attack.  Night sights would, of course, also be extremely helpful in engaging the AS in a dark environment, after you have positively identified the threat.



3. An armed citizen may get a “long distance” handgun shot at an AS.  Many of us have heard the statistics about the “average” distance of a self-defense shooting being very close – within the 1-5 yard range.  And we are told the vast majority of such shootings are within 7 yards.  This seems correct and reasonable since most self-defense shootings are against attackers who must get close enough to touch you.  So it seems logical for armed citizens to spend most limited training time and ammunition on the most likely self-defense scenarios, those that are within spitting distance.  But I have heard some armed citizens say that practicing defensive handgun shooting beyond seven yards is a waste of time, because you could never “justify” shooting someone at that distance.  An AS scenario would be an exception to that theory.  If you had been in the back half of that Aurora movie theater, or on the side opposite the exit door the AS entered, you very well might have been 20-30 yards away from him.  This long-distance engagement could occur in any AS attack location, such as a parking lot, school, mall, or church.  So, to be prepared to act on and end an AS attack, the armed citizen may need the ability to, under severe stress (and other adverse conditions), shoot at and hit (maybe multiple times) the killer at distances that require increased skill.



A gun fight is a balance of accuracy and speed.  At a defensive shooting distance of two yards against someone trying to kill you, speed is extremely important in that balance.  While you must get solid hits, they do not require precision, and time is extremely limited.  At longer distances, the accuracy-speed balance tips toward accuracy.  These are precision shots, especially against smaller body parts or a moving target.  Rushed and missed shots against an AS fail to stop the mass murder, allowing the number of victims to increase.  Missed shots also waste your ammunition, draw attention to you (more on this later), and cause danger to innocent people.



So, to prepare for the possibility of engaging an active shooter, the armed citizen needs to train at longer distances.  How far?  The question might not be, “How far away from the target should I train?”, but instead know how far you are capable and confident of getting hits.  A suggestion is to start with the handgun you carry at a close distance, then increase the distance incrementally by a few yards at a time.  Each shooter doing this will discover, with his skill and chosen gun, at what distance he loses confidence in getting hits.  That is an important thing to know.  If an armed citizen then encounters an AS at a distance beyond where he feels confident, he has three choices: escape;  hide or find cover and wait for the AS to move closer; or advance towards the AS until the armed citizen feels confident in his ability.



The ability to hit a long-distance target under stress requires proper training and proper gear.  Armed citizens carry a wide variety of handgun types that have a wide variety of capabilities.  Small guns with short barrels and small sights are less suited to long-distance hits under stress.  So armed citizens who want to be prepared to engage an AS at longer distances should choose, carry and train with a handgun that gives them the capability, with proper training, to do so.   Imagine how an armed citizen would feel if he was inside the back corner of such a theater when such an AS attack began, with only a North American Arms .22 micro-revolver in his/her pocket or purse?  Our gear and our training are the only variables armed citizens have control over once an AS attack starts, so we should maximize both.



4. The AS may be wearing body armor.  If initial media reports are accurate, the murderer in the Aurora theater attack is at least the third active shooter (not counting the L.A. bank robbers) to be wearing some type of body armor.  Most armed citizens who might engage an AS would probably attempt torso shots.  If successful at achieving torso hits, they likely would not stop a murderer wearing a protective vest.  Using a handgun to engage an AS with a protective vest would require precision shooting while under stress.  If the AS protective vest is visible and obvious, then all shots should be aimed at points other than typical “center of upper chest” for which most of us train.  But it might not be so obvious.  What might happen is the brave armed citizen, attempting to stop the AS, is frustrated and puzzled as to why his initial shots are not stopping the AS (This supports a decision to carry extra ammunition).  The armed citizen might assume he is missing the AS, and not alter sight placement.  If you are confident in your sights and trigger press, and are seeing no effects of several torso shots, consider the possibility of body armor.



Regardless of when you realize or suspect body armor on the AS, immediately move the location of your aim.  Possible alternate bullet placement options (if exposed) include the head, shoulders, armpits, hips, legs or arms (but they can be armored as well), and ankles or feet.  All of these require precision shots against small targets, all of which might be moving.  Having confidence in one’s gear and skill would be essential for such hits, which requires training.  Techniques that might improve accuracy for an armed citizen in such a situation include bracing your body against something to steady your hands, or going to a kneeling or prone firing position if possible.  Again, the chosen carry gun will make such a shot either less or more difficult.  Imagine deciding to engage a moving AS wearing body armor at 20 yards with a derringer or Ruger LCP.



Also realize that when you start engaging an AS, if you do not stop him, (among other negative things) you may draw his fire.  Many Active Shooters commit suicide or give up when confronted with resistance or force, but not all.  When a brave armed citizen attempted to stop an AS wearing a protective vest in a Tyler, TX parking lot in 2005, he drew fire from the AS, which unfortunately killed the armed citizen.



5.  Expect to be out-gunned.  Most Active Shooters have a long gun, and many have multiple guns.  Most of the few that only had a handgun, had a high-capacity, full size handgun with several spare magazines and/or extra rounds of ammunition.  So, playing the odds, if an armed citizen decides to engage an AS, the citizen can expect to have far less capable gear.  To win, therefore, the armed citizen must rely on three possible advantages: (1) the surprise of a citizen having a gun and the decision of when it is deployed; (2) skill gained through repetitive training for just such an event ; (3) and tactics, which can include movement and use of cover & concealment.



6. Masses of moving bystanders may negatively affect the armed citizen’s ability to identify and engage the AS.  If you do not identify the AS as soon as he starts shooting, you may initially only hear shots before being overcome by the screams and stampede of people who did see the AS.  Some eye-witness accounts of the Aurora AS attack include theater attendees running, shoving each other, crawling up the isles, and climbing over rows of chairs.  All of these would impede the armed citizen’s attempt to identify, move toward (if necessary), and engage the AS.  Imagine, after identifying the AS,  trying to take a precision long-distance shot while under severe mental stress at a moving target who is wearing body armor, all while numerous panicked people are scrambling around (maybe over) you.  If innocent people are moving either between the armed citizen and the AS, or behind the AS, this will make a shot at the AS extremely dangerous to those innocent people.



7. Consider the possibility of other legally armed citizens or off-duty police officers confusing you for the AS or a partner of the AS.  If you are legally armed, there is a possibility that there are other legally armed citizens also at your location.  In #1, above, we already discussed the initial confusion we can expect most people to experience when an AS starts his attack.  Once you suspect that you might actually be witnessing an AS, and you decide to engage, what are you looking for?  A person (odds say a man) holding a gun?  Well, that is exactly what you will look like to other legally armed people there who also make the brave decision to act.  This is also true for responding, on-duty police who will arrive later.  The possible negative outcome is obvious – friendly fire.  So, how does the armed citizen lessen the odds of this possible confusion?  One important factor is simply being aware of this possibility and using techniques to minimize tunnel vision.  It also seems logical that the odds of misidentification increase the longer the armed citizen keeps his gun exposed, such as while moving toward the AS.



The AS attack is happening.  You being mistaken for the AS might happen.  Act on what is happening.  If the armed citizen engages the AS, the quicker the engagement is over, the less likely a misidentification will cause harm.  After it appears the AS has been stopped, immediately yelling something like, “CALL 911!”, or “IS THERE ANOTHER SHOOTER?!”, something an AS probably would not say, might reduce the chances of immediate misidentification.  Also tell people calling 911 to tell and repeat to the 911 operator that there is a legally armed civilian at the scene.  If possible, it may be wise to have another bystander(s) go meet the responding uniformed police, inform them about you and the situation, and (if safe) lead them to you.



8. Consider the possibility of another legally armed citizen, or off-duty police officer, drawing his gun to engage the AS.  This is the reverse of #7 above.  The average armed citizen who realizes that he is experiencing an AS attack will be under sudden extreme stress, and will understand that the sooner he engages the AS, the fewer innocent people will die.  Urgency and extreme stress lead to snap decisions and rushed action.  Citizens that choose to go armed in public must stay aware that they are not the only ones who do so, and may not be the only ones that react to an AS attack.



Unfortunately, neither the AS or legally armed citizens wear an identifying sign.  So seeing someone simply holding a gun in an AS situation may not be enough information for a positive identification, and therefore the decision to engage.  That person’s actions and type of gun(s) may help the armed citizen determine the person’s motives.  Is the other armed citizen at the AS event randomly shooting at people, or is he “stalking,” as you are, trying to understand what is happening and who the shooter is?  Also, if that other armed citizen is carrying a long gun, darn good odds he is the AS.



9.  The AS may employ tear gas, smoke, bombs, or other devices.  Initial news reports indicate the Aurora theater murderer activated teargas or smoke generating devices inside the theater before he started shooting.  The Columbine High School killers attempted to activate bombs before and during their mass shooting.  These devices will increase confusion and fear.  They will also make it harder or maybe impossible to immediately engage the AS.  It may be a very hard decision, and difficult to live with later, if a trained, armed citizen must leave and not engage due to inability to breathe.  Most armed citizens, including me, are not yet ready to carry a gas mask everywhere we go.



10. All legally armed citizens must decide what to do about locations that prohibit the carrying of defensive handguns.  Several news reports have indicated that the theater in Aurora prohibited legal concealed carry by policy.  I do not know, and will probably never know, if there was an unauthorized armed citizen (other than the murderer) in the theater when the attack started, or if any person with a concealed carry license was there, but chose not to carry their handgun into the theater.



In my opinion, the goal should be to legislatively limit “prohibited places” to the absolute minimum, such as jails and other “secured” areas.  But that is a political solution that is difficult in most places and currently impossible in some.  One option, if possible, is to not enter businesses that prohibit armed self-defense.  That denies these businesses the profit of our money, but it also leaves defenseless other citizens who do enter such a place.  But what about places we must go, or feel compelled to go that are “prohibited places” in some or all states?  These include government offices, post offices, churches, hospitals, schools, and other locations.  In these situations, each armed citizen must make a choice.  For those who hypothetically make a decision to go armed into a “prohibited place,” each must understand and be prepared for what may happen should he be forced to defend innocent life while there.



Conclusion.  In the Army, after every training battle, soldiers gather and conduct what is called an “After Action Review (AAR).  In the AAR, soldiers review the recent simulated battle, to include the preparation for it.  The purpose is to identify lessons that can be identified and learned, so that they can reduce errors and repeat and increase successful actions in future battles.  Most legally armed citizens want to be prepared for a battle that they hope never happens.



The Aurora Active Shooter attack serves as a reminder for what occasionally happens, anytime, anywhere.  As horrible as it was, we should learn from it.  Armed citizens need to be mentally prepared.  We must be ready for surprise and confusion, but quickly identify the AS and decide if and how to engage.  If we decide to engage, we know that conditions of an AS response may be far more difficult than the “average” self-defense shooting, for many reasons.  We also must understand that we may not be the only legally armed people at the scene, which increases danger for all legally armed people who decide to act.  Each armed citizen should decide before the next AS attack if he wants to be better prepared to respond.  This probably requires improved tactics, precision shooting skills, and the proper gun and ammunition to do such an important job.




(Ed Monk is co-owner and instructor at Last Resort Firearms Training in central Arkansas.  He is a graduate of the U.S. Military Academy (West Point) and retired as a Lieutenant Colonel after over 20 years as an armor officer, including duty in Iraq, battalion command, and three assignments as the leader of military training teams.  He is an NRA certified handgun instructor, graduate of multiple professional handgun training schools, and a GLOCK armorer.  He also serves as a part-time city police officer.  He provides educational presentations to universities, schools, civic organizations, and other groups on the threat of the Active Shooter. He can be reached at edmonk@aol.com)


16 Comments For This Post I'd Love to Hear Yours!

  1. ferndale says:

    i’d be in favor of more guest posts if it meant access to more good writing.

    • ferndale says:

      also, since i’m expressing preferences, i’d love, love, love more information about hardening defenses at home to avoid home invasion, surviving flash mobs, and at-home pistol training methods.

  2. Joe says:

    Good stuff Greg and Ed. Thanks for sharing!

  3. Andy M. says:

    Great write Article. Thanks for sharing.

  4. Thomas says:

    At the risk of being flamed as a coward, I am reminded of Evan Marshall’s words to the effect that, “I am armed to protect me and mine.” Specifically, I am not armed to protect any other adult who has chosen to not go legally armed. Also, while I am well trained and armed, I sincerely pray that I will never be compelled to shoot any man. That’s why chose to not be a soldier or a police officer, though I have the highest respect for both professions.

    The thought of shooting over or through a panicking crowd some 20-30 yards deep with a smallish handgun seems to me a recipe for disaster. Between volunteering as a bullet magnet (!), the probability of shooting a moving innocent, and the real chance of being shot by responding police, this seems a bad choice, unless there is NO choice remaining.

    My inclination would be to focus on escape or getting very very small until/unless the AS was advancing, others were also returning his fire, or he was shooting too close to “ignore” such that it truly became an immediate matter of survival.

    • Greg Ellifritz says:

      That doesn’t sound cowardly at all! It sounds like a very sensible course of action to me!

    • Del Bender says:

      I have become in agreement with Thomas after 4 years of owning and weekly training with my firearms and thinking about being in a public situation.

  5. Pablo says:

    Wow! Good read… And I think like Thomas: Im not superman, Im just prepared to defend me and mines.

  6. Steve says:

    Great article. Everyone should read this. Very well written.

  7. CB3 says:

    Excellent article. Thanks for the imparted knowledge and effort to share.

    An observation: A single round (or multiples) striking an AS without killing him refocuses his intent away from kiling innocents. In some cases, he immediately takes his own life, ending the event. In others, he retreats. In some cases, he may try to fight back if he can identify where the incoming round came from, which would be very difficult. Each of these possibilities reduces the number of murders occurring; certainly a desired outcome.

    Having a CCW kill the AS is desirable, but not the only acceptable outcome. Using concealment/cover and evasion/escape after shooting at the AS are still possibilities even though the AS has not been neutralized. It’s not an all or nothing proposition.

  8. Steve S. says:

    Good reminder article, thanks for bringing it up again, Greg.

    As an ex-cop, I still have that mentality to run towards trouble. And, like was also mentioned, my pistol now days is for protection mainly of me & mine. There’s that fine line.

    #’s 7 & 8 keep me awake at night sometimes….

  9. Ted S says:

    I wonder about using a light in a low light active shooter situation. I have shot many matches in low light conditions and it is difficult to both aim the light and aim the gun at the same time. Seems to me that as soon as you turn on your light the AS is going to see it and shoot at it. So you totally lose the surprise tactic and are now drawing aimed fire while you are still trying to find the target with your flashlight. For sure, absolutely must have is night sights. With night sights and the AS identified with his light, I can make an good aimed shot from the concealment of darkness and have both hands fully on the gun without one hand trying to hold the flashlight. Just my thoughts on it.

  10. Mike Mckay says:

    What a thoroughly enjoyable read (subject matter not withstanding of course)

    Every single thought I had to post in a comment got addressed as I read on leaving me with nothing to do but applaud the meticulous attention to detail from the initial author and nod in agreement at the praise given to his experience by the editorial text introducing the article

    More than anything else it really draws attention to the importance of choosing a weapon to carry because whilst researching handguns for a project I was extremely surprised how much variance there was in acuracy even over relatively short distances such as 10, 15 or 20 metres with some guns becoming almost worthless even at such distances even in the hands of a highly trained user

    Whilst other combinations of guns and the ammunition used can be deemed reliable at even longer distanced despite not being much if any larger physically

    Glow in the dark spots on sights is obviously something mentioned that may not even have occured to people only really expecting to use their weapon in a very short distance, the recoil of the weapon which becomes more problematic the futher the distance and many other things the article delves into do seem to be extremely relevant and I would guess often overlooked factors where a person is only really thinking of a very limited set of situations where they would feel justified in shooting

    After all, I doubt many people would feel good about starting off trying to be a hero but ending up being convicted of killing innocent bystanders due to poor weapons and ordnance choices or a lack of experience or training as it would probably put a downer on the day which was already down far enough to last a lifetime to begin with

  11. Barry Graham says:

    7&8 are really big deals. In a simunition training exercise with police and some ccw citizens (all experienced competitive shooters), I was the robber. I quietly went about releaving the ‘cashier’ of the the register receipts and was heading for the exit door. My backup, acting like a ‘shopper’ noticed an ‘armed citizen’ who observing the hold-up, was going for a gun to stop me from leaving. My back-up spoiled the ‘citizens’ draw. I made it out to the street, My backup shot the citizen and immediately concealed his own gun. Then, pointing to the armed citizen and calling out “GUN” several other ‘shoppers’ that were armed, drew their guns and they all shot the Sh*t out of each other. I’m on the street, hearing all this gunfire wondering WTF is going on? What could be the lesson learned?

    • Mike Mckay says:

      I guess the humourous lesson learned would be to avoid shopping anywhere that armed americans might shop lol 🙂

  12. Mike Mckay says:

    in fact theres probably a good stand up joke in there somewhere

    A guy standing in a shop shouts “gun” to the storekeeper, then the other 14 shoppers pull their handguns and all shoot each other at which point the original guy continues

    “gun gun gunna get m m me s s some m m more of these at this price, its a bargain”

    Having a stutter can be a b b b bitch sometimes I guess 🙂

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